The manufacturing process for automobile windshields


Glass is made up of several oxides that when heated fuse and react with each other to create a glass. These include silica, sodium oxide and calcium oxide. Raw materials from which these materials are formed are sand, soda and limestone. Soda acts as a flux; Simply put, it lowers the melting point of the batch composition. Lime is added to increase the hardness of the glass. Windshield glass also contains several other oxides: magnesium oxide, potassium oxide, and aluminum oxide.

The process

The raw materials are weighed in the right amount and mixed with a small amount of water. Once made, it is sent to a large tank to be melted, performing the float glass process. First, the charge is heated to a molten state and then passed into a tank called a float chamber, which contains a bath of molten tin. At the entrance, the temperature of the can is around 1,835 degrees Fahrenheit, while at the exit, the temperature of the can is slightly cooler at 1,115 degrees Fahrenheit. In the float chamber, the glass does not dip into the can, but floats on it and moves through the tub like on a conveyor belt. The perfectly flat surface of the tin causes even the molten glass to become flat while the high temperatures clean the glass of impurities. The reduced temperature at the exit of the chamber allows the glass to harden sufficiently to be moved to the next chamber. After the glass leaves the float chamber, it is picked up by rollers and fed into a teaching furnace. In this furnace, the glass is gradually cooled to about 395 degrees Fahrenheit, after the glass leaves the gauge it cools to room temperature. It is now very hard and strong and ready to be cut.

cutting and tempering

The glass is cut with a diamond scriber. Diamond is used because it is harder than glass. Next, the cut piece needs to be shaped. The pane of glass is placed in a metal mold. The glass-filled mold is then heated in an oven to the point where the glass forms into the shape.

After this shaping step, the glass must be tempered in a heating step called tempering. First, the glass is heated to approximately 1,565 degrees Fahrenheit and then blasted with cold air jets. This process hardens the glass. As a result, the car glass can break into many small pieces of glass without sharp edges if damaged.


In this process, two panes of glass are bonded together with a layer of plastic. The lamination takes place in a special oven. The plastic layer is often tinted to act as a UV filter. When laminated glass breaks, the broken glass remains bound to the tear-resistant plastic layer and the broken pane remains transparent. In contrast to conventional safety glass, laminated glass can be further processed


Once laminated, the windshield is ready to be assembled using plastic molds so it can be mounted. This assembly process, known as encapsulation, is typically performed at the glass manufacturer. First, the windshield is placed in a mold. Next, molten plastic is injected into the mold which, when cooled, forms a plastic frame around the glass. The windshield is then shipped to the automaker where it is installed in a vehicle. Installation is through a process that uses a polyurethane adhesive to bond the windshield to the vehicle body.

quality control

This step includes checking the raw materials and checking the melt temperature. Special equipment is used in the manufacture of the glass to look for flaws in the glass. Other automated devices have been developed to measure dimensions and radii of curvature after the windshield has been formed.

Safety glass used in windshields must meet specific specifications for properties such as impact resistance and strength. Safety standards have been developed to ensure the quality of the glass.

Car parts – important for the daily functioning of industrial facilities

With the development of modern technology, machines have become the rulers of the industrial world. Many industrial processes can no longer be carried out today without the help of machines and automated systems. It is true that the use of machines has made our lives easier and more comfortable. Auto parts play an important role in the daily operation of cars. Therefore, it is important to take proper care of these parts in order to obtain flawless results for a long time. There are different types of parts that make up a car, and each part requires a different type of maintenance. Therefore, it is important to seek the help of experts when maintaining these parts.

The use of electronics

In recent years there have been tremendous developments in the field of science and technology. Like all other areas of life, the processes in the automotive industry have also changed drastically as a result of this development. Nowadays, electronic devices are mainly used in the daily operation of machines, and cars are no exception. In fact, modern cars and vehicles have evolved into smarter and more sophisticated machines that truly understand the needs of the passengers. Nowadays, electronic gadgets are mainly used in most of the cars to make the driving comfortable. Virtually all major systems in a car these days, including the braking system, fuel injection process and steering system, are largely electronically controlled. This has made the drive more secure and reduced the chances of human error.

The braking system

The braking system is one of the most important parts of a vehicle as it is responsible for bringing the moving vehicle to a standstill. The failure of this system can lead to serious accidents. While in the past the entire system worked on human intervention, today sensors are built into cars so that the car itself can recognize the need to brake and take the necessary action. However, it is important to properly maintain these sensors to keep them performing as expected.

The need for regular maintenance

Cars can function properly if they are serviced and maintained regularly. The main advantage of maintenance is that the cars are thoroughly checked and necessary repairs and replacements are carried out at an additional cost. The entire maintenance process is mainly carried out by experienced professionals, so customers can be confident in the quality of services they will receive. With regular maintenance, auto parts can function for a longer period of time, saving users money and time.

Auto parts are readily available these days. Most car companies sell their branded parts for their cars. These parts can be easily purchased from dealers or other authentic stores. Some even take care of online orders and ship the parts to users at a nominal cost. If users are looking for cheaper parts, they can enlist the help of local repair shops and car dealerships. The parts they supply may not be branded, but they provide flawless performance for a long time.

Live support for the website that powers the automotive industry

Whether it’s products or services, striving for higher quality is nothing new for companies. Thanks to rapid technological advances, customers are even more hyper-connected than before, which just means businesses have to brace themselves for the tougher competition. To increase productivity while reaping the full benefits of the Internet, industries can use live site support to interact with browsers. Likewise, chat support software for car dealers is a great way to answer customer questions about the vehicles in their inventory. According to several studies, almost 70% of customers who want to buy a vehicle do their research first on the Internet. Therefore, proper guidance from the company representatives can easily lead them down the sales funnel, thereby exponentially increasing the chances of the customers to visit your actual lot in person.

There are many benefits of chat support software for the customers who are already searching for the perfect car for them. Before you buy, you usually need information about technical features and that too in detail. Whether it’s fuel economy, insurance plans, or a comparison between different models, live chat representatives are able to offer online browsers the intricacies of almost anything. In addition to direct contact with customers, the company offers a live chat tool.

24/7 communication, so no long waiting times. There is no need for customers to hang around for a phone call or email to arrive. With instant support, customers can discuss facts like fees, delivery dates, special offers, etc., which saves time and allows customers to get the service without any hassles.

Live chat support is all about proactivity. Once the customer lands on a page, company representatives can easily invite them to chat. Engaging them in a conversation would increase their chances of making a purchase even more.

A better understanding of the needs of online shoppers through the features that allow business representatives to monitor visitor traffic, activity and the pages they view on your website.

Face-to-face conversations with customers and face-to-face interactions help to find better solutions that are precisely tailored to customers’ requirements. For example, when a visitor browses through a website looking for specific parts or accessories, the personalized attention of operators would lead them to precise solutions.

For the automotive industry, live website support is an extremely easy way to interact and provide advice to customers with just a few keystrokes. In addition, customers would be more than happy to do business with you.

India and car recycling

However, India’s auto-recycling or auto-shredder ecosystem is still in its infancy. The sector is largely dominated by the unorganized sector. Areas like Mayapuri & Jama Masjid in Delhi, Kurla in Mumbai, Pudupet in Chennai are the current cemeteries for end-of-life vehicles.

Activities in these areas are largely disorganized and unregulated. This means that the recycling process is mainly carried out without complex systems and processes. The recovery and efficiency is also low. The processes not only harbor health risks, but also inherently have serious security gaps.

Health risks surrounding the markets have attracted attention in the past. A few years ago there was a case of radiation caused by Cobalt 60 pencils. Lead-acid batteries are also harmful to health. Oils from vehicles dumped onto roads create extremely unsanitary conditions in the surrounding area. The practice of gas cutting causes enormous pollution and makes it impossible to breathe – which either way worsens the miserable state of air quality that prevails in Delhi.

In addition to the existing pipeline of old vehicles pouring into these markets, the government is drafting much-needed end-of-life car policies. With the average lifespan of a car in India being 18 years versus 9.73 years in Europe, vehicles are well past their sell-by date. The effect is obvious: an old car produces up to 10 times more emissions than new cars, possesses outdated technology, etc. The Delhi government first drafted a policy to scrap approximately 37,000 vehicles older than 15 years 37 % of cars registered in Delhi.

“Currently there is no regulation directing the police or the government what to do with the vehicles once they have been impounded. The new regulations will create a mechanism to ensure proper disposal of old vehicles. This will be a policy first of its kind in India,” Commissioner (Transport) Varsha Joshi told Hindustan Times.

The question now is: does Delhi (or India) have sufficient and proper capacity to recycle these old cars?

India needs to adopt best practices from Europe and the US to take car recycling practices to an organized level.

The vehicle is first sent to the pollutant removal. The detoxification process safely removes all hazardous waste – batteries, airbags, gas cylinders, mercury switches, tyres, air conditioning, liquids and oils – this is done by sophisticated machinery. The vehicle is then sent for dismantling where good parts are removed for resale/further use. The rest of the vehicle is then pressed/sheared. The pressed vehicle is then sent to the shredder for further processing.

When shredding, 3 components of the automobile are separated:

• Iron – recycled to material

• Non-Ferrous – Recycled into material

• Shredded tailings – these are sent to landfill or further recycled as much as possible

The organized process is carried out by machines as opposed to brute force used in unorganized markets. As a result of these organized processes, almost no pollution and waste is produced.

The result is a circular economy in which steel scrap produced is reused and reliance on natural resource extraction and steel scrap imports is reduced (India currently imports 8 million tonnes of steel scrap). The need of the hour for the Indian context is therefore not only an efficient end-of-life car policy, but also organized vehicle recycling.

How you can benefit from an automotive guest post

Do you feel like blogging about cars? If so, it’s pretty obvious that you would like to tell other car enthusiasts about your blog. You can’t imagine how fulfilling it would be to let others read about all the information you share on your blog.

What should you do to promote your blog? Well, there are many options. The only problem is that every blog promotion almost always comes with a payment. If you are on a tight budget and unsure of the effectiveness of an online marketing campaign, you have the option of doing it yourself for free.


Learn more about the automotive guest post. If a website is known to have thousands of website visits from car enthusiasts like you, then surely being part of such a community will get you instant exposure. You can count on automotive backlinks as soon as you place an automotive guest post on the site.

You can write anything about cars, designs, features, accessories or anything that interests you and the car lovers. Or if your business is about cars, you can use your posts to invite people to check out your products and services.

The best part about having automotive backlinks through this method is that the service is free. As long as you contribute original and immaculately written content to the site, you can be assured of a better presence on the site and the community at large. You can think of it as free advertising, which means a ton of savings on marketing efforts. These automotive backlinks will greatly improve your website stats and help you rank better in search engines.

Aside from promoting your business, the most important significance of participating in this type of service is that you are able to contribute to the growing number of car enthusiasts around the world. You can share your knowledge about cars. You have the opportunity to help those who are looking for specific information.

On the other hand, you can also benefit a lot from this service. First you will take care of your marketing needs. Second, you can forecast a potential increase in sales for your products and services. Third, you have a way to share your articles. Finally, you also learn from other people who also share information about cars. It’s a mutually beneficial avenue that will keep the car enthusiast community alive.

All you have to do is fill up your blog and prepare it well so that you have a lot to offer your guests as soon as they flock in. You can start showing an automotive guest post on the site to get noticed by other members and site visitors. Make sure you have a well-written article for your first post so you can make a positive impact and keep readers asking for more from you. The more informative your posts are, the more people will want to read everything you contribute.

2007 Automotive Sneak Peek, Part 3!

Many 2007 model year vehicles have already reached new auto showrooms, beginning with several new SUVs built by General Motors. The upcoming model year is shaping up to be one likely to be filled with plenty of changes as automakers reshape their lineups and prepare for the impending invasion of cheap imports from China. Consumer choice has never been better and prices are actually lower for many models, so the competition is good and you’re the winner. Let’s take a look at five vehicles that are sure to draw a lot of attention when they hit the market this year.

Ford Explorer Sport Trac – Based on the Explorer body, the Sport Trac has a wheelbase nearly 17 inches longer than the Explorer and a composite truck bed. With four doors and a platform, the SUV/pick-up truck “Hybrid” fulfills a double pack with a lot of style. Powered by a 4.0-liter V6, the Expedition’s 4.6-liter V8 is also available. You can get the Sport Trac with either 2 or 4 wheel drive.

Mazda CX-7 – Mazda jumps into the crossover craze with its attractive looking CX-7. As a five-door/hybrid SUV, the five-passenger CX-7 is powered by a turbocharged 2.3-litre I4 engine that produces a remarkable 244 hp. Available with front- or all-wheel drive, the CX-7 combines the athletic looks of a sports car with the looks of a curvaceous SUV. Ford and Lincoln also get versions of the vehicle.

Suzuki SX-4 – Suzuki, one of the lesser-known Japanese brands, is trying to get a bigger slice of the pie by launching new and updated versions of its models in the North American market. The SX-4, a compact crossover vehicle, is Suzuki’s latest attempt to achieve its goals. Available in either front-wheel drive or all-wheel drive, the five-door SX-4 is powered by a 2.0-liter I4 and is aimed squarely at Subaru enthusiasts. It is the opinion of this author that Suzuki must first work on the styling before success can be expected; most of the time, whatever the automaker produces is pretty boring.

Chevy Suburban – As part of a major overhaul of its mid- and large-size SUVs and trucks, the beefy Suburban debuts with many changes. All new sheetmetal, displacement-on-demand engineering and a remote-controlled rear tailgate are some of the major changes in this big SUV. Of course, given $2 or $3 a gallon of gas, the Suburban presents a thirsty proposition for owners. However, if you need a big SUV, the all-new Suburban can fill the bill for you.

Hyundai entourage – Sharing a platform with the Kia Sedona, the Entourage is Hyundai’s first minivan. Unlike the Sedona, there will only be the long-wheelbase version. Powered by a 3.8-liter V6, the engine is mated to a five-speed automatic transmission. A key feature of the Entourage is the third row of seats, which fold flat into the floor.

Yes, the 2007 model year is already on the horizon for some models. Prices are very competitive and many vehicles feature the latest technology. Shop today and save on a model you’re sure to love!

Welding Certification – Automotive ICAR Tests

I-CAR is a non-profit training organization for the auto accident industry.

Part of I-CAR’s training programs includes automotive welding qualification tests. With modern uni-body design cars, it is important that any weld repair is structurally sound.

I-CAR offers 3 welder qualification tests at authorized test locations in the United States:

  • Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) test for aluminum
  • GMAW test for steel
  • mild steel parts

GMAW aluminum test welds required

3 welds are required…a fillet welded lap joint, a plug welded lap joint and a butt welded joint with pad. These welds are made on two different aluminum alloys and on two different aluminum thicknesses.

The aluminum alloys are: 5052-H32 and 6061-T6. The thicknesses are 1 mm and 2.5 mm (0.040 inch and 0.100 inch).

All 6 welds must pass visual inspection and destructive testing.

GMAW test for steel

The welding tests are carried out with 18 ga steel. This welding certification requires 4 welds:

The 4 welds are a fillet welded lap joint, a plug welded lap joint, a butt welded joint with pad and an open butt welded joint.

Welding certification for steel components

The weld test used for the structural weld certification test is the same type and thickness used for the I-CAR Steel GMAW (MIG) weld test. the test is carried out on a simulated structural part.

2 joints are required: a backed butt weld and an offset fillet weld. With a total of 30 weld seams, plug welds are also used. To pass the weld inspection, the welds must pass visual inspection and the overall length of the part must be within a specified tolerance. It is a distortion test and a welding certification test.

I-CAR is attempting to establish some standardization of weld repairs in the automotive industry.

That seems like a good thing.

Digital multimeters for automotive and industrial applications

Digital multimeters have now become an essential tool for any mechanic or technician working with electronic equipment. Far more sophisticated than their analog counterparts of the past, the digital multimeter has evolved into a highly specialized device designed for specific testing situations in both the home and business. Digital multimeters can be small, handheld devices used to check electronic systems in automobiles, or they can appear as advanced benchtop instruments in manufacturing labs or industrial field applications. Red Hill Supply distributes Fluke digital multimeters and carries the full range of engineering designs for both commercial customers and individual end users.

As the name suggests, digital multimeters combine convenience with multifunction. A digital multimeter works by converting signal measurements into a digital readout on an LED. This technology eliminates the parallax errors common in previous analog technology.

Today’s DMMs use specialized test probes that are specially adapted to the test object. Red Hill Supply sells Fluke digital multimeters that use hook clamps, pointed probes, and alligator clips to handle the variety of test surfaces faced by today’s technicians. Test probes are connected to the device via heavy-insulated cables, which ensure both an accurate measurement and safe operation.

Any type of electrical troubleshooting or repair work usually requires a digital multimeter to pinpoint electrical problems and provide various measurements of electrical phenomena. Standard measurement settings for most digital multimeters include current (AMPS), voltage (VOLTS), and resistance (OHMS). Simply put, resistance relates to the ease of electrical flow, voltage relates to the amount of electrical flow, and amperage reflects the power of electricity itself. In addition, a good digital multimeter will accurately measure both AC and DC devices. A car battery generates direct current and needs sufficient voltage for reliable operation. On the other hand, the vehicle’s alternator produces alternating current and may require both amperage and voltage tests. Any work on a vehicle’s radio or stereo system must be resistance tested, as low ohms will cause a speaker to burn out. More advanced digital multimeters designed for commercial and industrial projects offer additional testing options to measure capacitance, frequency, circuit continuity, inductance, and even temperature.

Automobile companies – top manufacturers and their models

Automobile companies around the world manufacture a variety of automobiles such as: B. Cars of different models. The automotive industry is one of the fastest growing sectors. With more than a hundred years of history, the automotive industry has marked the entry of many small and large automotive companies into different countries around the world.

Among the few of the world-class automobile companies that have spread wings in many countries are the following.


Toyota is one of the most renowned Japanese automobile companies that has developed world-class cars in the economy, mainstream and luxury segments. Some of the most popular Toyota models are Betla, Camry, Caldina, Corlla, Crown, Dyna, Prius, Inniva, Porte, Qualis and many more.

General Motors

General Motors (GM), the US auto giant, has manufactured many world-class automobiles. Some of GM’s most successful brands are: Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, Daewoo, Holden, Hummer, Opel, Pontiac, Saab, Saturn and Vauxhall.


Volkswagen, the famous German automobile company, owns nine other active automobile companies, such as Audi AG, Bentley Motors Ltd., Bugatti Automobiles SAS, Lamborghini SpA, SEAT, SA, Skoda Auto, Volkswagen Passenger Cars, Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles, MAN AG and Scania AB .


Ford, the US auto giant, is the industry innovator, making some of the best and finest models of cars, buses, trucks and tractors in the world. Depending on local and regional preferences, climate and geographic conditions, Ford designs and develops different types of automobiles.


Honda is a famous Japanese automobile manufacturer that has spread its wings to almost every part of the world. Honda is known for making some of the best automotive products in the world.


Hyundai is a South Korean automotive giant that offers some of the best cars in the world. Some of the most successful cars manufactured by Hyundai are: Accent, Santro, Azera, Dynasty, Elantra, Genesis, Getz, Sonata, i30, i20 and i10.


Suzuki is another Japanese car and bicycle manufacturer that has earned a good name and fame in both the domestic and international automobile markets. Swift, Esteem, Vitara, SX4 A Star are some of the best models designed and developed by Suzuki.

Tata Motors

Tata Motors is an Indian car manufacturer that recently made a splash in the auto industry by acquiring Jaguar, one of Ford’s most well-known brands. The company produces cars, trucks, tricycles and other heavy vehicles.

FOSS V FORD – Realigning Canadian automotive history

Inventors can influence future generations, often changing the way we do things and defining historical eras. Accounts of the inventors’ achievements and stories of their lives are recorded with interest and for posterity. Historians seek evidence and facts so that the achievements of these inventors are reflected in documents preserved in libraries, archives and museums.

While working on two events recently, we were able to casually ask members of the general public if they knew who invented the first gasoline car in Canada. Perhaps not surprisingly, most of our respondents believed that Ford was the first car manufacturer in Canada. Of course, Ford has the advantage of brand recognition and longevity. However, Ford was not Canadian, nor did it build the first gasoline car in Canada.

The latest release of the Oscar-winning film “Ford v Ferrari” reconfirmed that the Ford brand was a force to be reckoned with in the mid-1960s. The dynamism of this film has provided the Foss family with an opportunity to bring to light an often-overlooked piece of Canadian history. The inventor of the first gasoline car in Canada was not Ford, but the lesser known Foss. Foss built the Fossmobile in 1897, around the same time that Ford in the United States was inventing the quadracycle. Ford’s first automobiles were not sold in Canada until the early 1900s. So in the late 19th century it was Ford versus Foss.

The recognition of this seminal piece of Canadian history has somehow been buried and lost under the shadow of Ford for too long. The Foss family has recently reignited interest among Canadian historians and classic car enthusiasts in celebrating the achievements of George Foote Foss, the original inventor of Canada’s first successful gasoline car.

The Ford-Ferrari rivalry shows how competition combined with vision, personal belief and collaboration can lead to great strides in automotive innovation. As we see in the film, American automotive designer Carroll Shelby worked with his precision-focused friend, British racing driver Ken Miles, in the mid-1960s. Together they represented Henry Ford II’s goal of beating Ferrari by making a faster racing car. Sharing a shared vision of defying the laws of physics in the racing world, they gingerly sidestepped corporate interference to build a revolutionary vehicle for Ford Motor Co. The plan was to compete against Enzo Ferrari’s racing cars in the 24 Hours of Le Mans in France. After years of Ferrari dominance, their vision was realized. In 1966 the Ford GT 40 won, taking all three podiums: first, second and third.

The story of the Fossmobile may not have the panache needed for a blockbuster film plot, but it deserves attention for its historical relevance. Long before Ford sold cars in Canada, the original Fossmobile was built by George Foote Foss in 1897 in a small, dusty old bicycle repair and machine shop in Sherbrooke, Quebec. Like the main characters in the film Ford vs. Ferrari, Foss had vision and personal conviction. Enlisting the help of three workers, he sought out the Iron Works Company in Sherbrooke, who helped produce the first castings for the engine he was designing. He designed parts from scratch, combining his intuition to think outside the box with his machining and bike repair skills. Foss persevered until he had put together something that could be driven on the hilly roads of Sherbrooke.

It’s well documented that he drove this invention around for four years, well before other cars appeared in the area. George Foss met with Henry Ford on more than one occasion to discuss the idea of ​​joint automaking. Ultimately, Foss rejected Ford, sensing that the two had different personality styles and visions.

The Foss family continues to build awareness of Foss, the first Canadian gasoline car inventor, by speaking at events and hosting information booths. Their biggest and most significant project to date is to rebuild a homage/replica of the original Fossmobile. This project requires a significant amount of fundraising to make this vision a reality.

It was disappointing to hear that most of the people we spoke to at recent events assumed that Ford was somehow responsible for Canada’s first automobile. This highlighted the need, at least here in Canada, to look beyond the now well-known Ford v Ferrari legacy to the more distant past of the original Ford v Foss legacy. Written in the last paragraph of the foreword in the book “Cars of Canada”, Durnford/Baechler (1973, McClelland and Stewart Limited), it says the following;

“A common misconception is that Ford was the first Canadian automobile manufacturer. For years, John Moodie falsely claimed to have imported the first car to Canada. UH Dandurand claimed to have had the first car in Montreal, but he didn’t. And so it goes. Many hallowed legends turn out to be unfounded.”

Some 47 years later, those myths seem to live on, particularly that of Ford. There is no question that Henry Ford and Ford vs. Ferrari belong proudly in the American history books. However, here in Canada, the man we should acknowledge as the original builder is George Foote Foss. Retelling this important historical Canadian legacy could eventually dispel the myth that Ford was the first to have a gasoline car in Canada. It is our responsibility as Canadians to embrace the important part of Canadian automotive history from this quiet builder and not allow the Ford giant to eclipse its legacy.

The tribute/replica of the original Fossmobile is carefully and conscientiously built to shed light on this historical feat. The Foss family has taken on the enormous task of overseeing this project. A team has been put together to carry out every detail and the project is well on its way to completion. The goal is for this tribute/replica car to be placed in a Canadian museum so visitors have a better chance of appreciating this significant Canadian achievement. The Fossmobile Tribute automobile and its supporting memorabilia will help rectify Canadian automotive history more clearly, restoring that it was, and is, Foss v Ford, as the first gasoline-powered automobile manufacturer in Canada.