Role of Bluetooth in automotive applications

Bluetooth in the car:

The new generations of vehicles will have more and more microcontrollers that are connected via two or more networks. One advantage of this is that the car can be customized via software, another is that the car can largely have self-diagnostic functions. To take full advantage of such functions, two-way communication is required between the vehicle system and production tools as well as service tools for downloading new software and parameters and uploading status and diagnostic messages. These production and service tools will be largely based on PC technology. The vehicle system and tool are connected via a cable, either directly via a gateway to the CAN (Controller Area Network) bus. The cheapest way is to connect the PC directly to the CAN bus via drip line, but this must be short. According to the CAN standard, it should be less than 39 cm at a bit rate of 1 Mbit/s. Compare with USB and Bluetooth, the portability and versatility has made Bluetooth highly developed.

Bluetooth in car production:

In car production, a lot of software is downloaded as the final step in the production line. This is an application that Bluetooth would be ideal for. The Bluetooth base station is connected to the production fieldbus. When the car connects online to the Bluetooth base station, it uploads its serial number. The production computer then loads the software for exactly this car via the fieldbus to the base station, which in turn transmits it to the car. However, this is a dedicated use and no Bluetooth devices other than those installed in the cars should be connected to the cell.

Bluetooth for car service:

A scenario for using Bluetooth could be:

1) When the car enters the gas station, its Bluetooth station contacts the gas station’s main computer. This has previously exchanged information with the car computer via the mobile phone system.

2) The main computer of the service station alerts the service man who has been assigned the task, and his PC makes contact with the car and downloads all the necessary information.

3) The service technician receives all the work instructions he needs on his PC. When maintaining the car, he can control and set several functions through the PC, such as: All lights, windows, air conditioning, engine parameters, etc. It can also download the latest software versions to any electronic control unit (ECU).

CAN/Bluetooth Basics:

CAN was developed as a basis for highly reliable communication over a twisted pair of wires, which can be applied from very simple tasks to advanced real-time control. To achieve this goal, it is based on the principle that each node in a system simultaneously examines each bit transmitted on the bus. This principle elegantly solves a number of problems such as bus access, collision detection, data consistency, etc. However, the condition that each node should see the same bit at the same time requires a controlled wave propagation time. This is easy to achieve in a wired system, but difficult to achieve in a wireless system. Therefore, all wireless transmissions in CAN systems must take place via gateways, and Bluetooth offers the best options for this task among the available radio standards.

The ideal Bluetooth concept for diagnostics:

The ideal Bluetooth concept for diagnostics should have the following properties:

1 Low cost

2 performance as required

3 standards as required

To achieve these goals we need a low cost, high performance Bluetooth unit that can be used for any application. Then it has to be stripped of everything that not everyone needs, so a concept like CAN. CAN provides the basic functionality required by any controller network, but the remaining required functionality must be provided by an additional higher-layer protocol. The base Bluetooth block should take care of the RF part and the essential part of the baseband protocol which is of little or no interest for any application but is essential for Bluetooth functionality.

Communication during production:

The wireless communication between the vehicle and the automation system of the production line could open up completely new functions in the production process. Depending on the process step, for example in final assembly, vehicle control and control of the production line can exchange status information about both the product and the process.

Communication during the service:

Possible uses in service can be easily derived from the scenario described above for the production process. Wireless communication between the vehicle and a service station computer may be used to exchange status information and service-specific information. This step can be supported by an upstream data exchange using telecommunications. Wireless communication in combination with a mobile service computer offers the service personnel optimal flexibility.

Advantages and Benefits:

The most important advantages of wireless technologies for technical tasks remain more or less hidden from the vehicle customer. The advantage of such a solution is the increase in flexibility, modularity and reliability. Although the benefit cannot be experienced directly by the customer, it is nevertheless important for the automotive industry. In addition, the potential of wireless communication at the level of technical tasks between intelligent devices and control units in the vehicle as well as control units and human-machine interfaces in the environment of the car can lead to new functionalities and an increase in flexibility in production and service. The advantage for the customer is an increase in reliability. The increase in flexibility is a great advantage for the product development phases. A simplified wiring harness and wireless interfaces are advantages for manufacturing. For service, maintenance and repair, wireless interfaces are advantageous with regard to the disassembly and assembly of parts. In addition, wireless communication opens up possibilities for flexible connections to human-machine interfaces and diagnostic systems. Although in general an electronic component for a wireless transmission unit is more expensive than a cable, there are several ways to reduce product costs, for example through standardization and by reducing the assembly effort.


There is a potential of up to hundreds of millions of Bluetooth nodes per year in the vehicle manufacturer market if Bluetooth can be used for real-time control and other technical tasks. A key trend in vehicle development over the past few years has been the increasing number of electrical and electronic systems. Many of these systems were introduced to offer customers innovations by increasing functionality, comfort and safety. Another reason is the partial replacement of mechanical components by electrical components or their integration into mechatronic systems.


1) Bluetooth in automotive applications

Lars-Berno Fredriksson, KVASER AB

2) The potential of Bluetooth in automotive applications

Horst Wunderlich and Martin Schwab, DaimlerChrysler R&T, Germany Lars-Berno Fredriksson, Kvaser AB, Sweden

3) Bluetooth wireless technology optimization

as an ideal interface for car diagnostics – Lars-Berno Fredriksson, Kvaser AB, Sweden

At the forefront of the tire and automotive industry

The world turns to the tire and wheel industry for the latest and greatest in the automotive industry, including retreading. Customers in this industry need to educate themselves on what are the best machines for uniformity, dynamic balance and geometry.

In the automotive industry, tire and wheel assembly rooms combine all the functions needed to mount a tire on a rim and inspect it for defects before the customer buys it.

Uniformity in the automotive industry, analyzes force variations, runout and sidewall appearance in tire and wheel assemblies. Without proper inspection, these forces compromise tire integrity and automobile driveability could be drastically affected. To test for regularity, I suggest finding an experienced company that uses the ASTEC tire and wheel regularity machine.

Dynamic balancing measures tire and wheel assemblies based on static imbalance, pair and top and bottom plane imbalance. If this is not checked properly, the tires can jump, wobble and steer incorrectly. For balancing, I recommend the VTW Dynamic Tire and Wheel Balance System to test tires before mounting them on a car.

Geometry measurement systems provide a complete analysis of tire sidewall and tire tread width areas. By using geometry measurements, the tire should not have any defects such as B. bumps or depressions.

As a driver, our tires are expected to be inspected and ready to ride when they are brand new. The automotive test and measurement system is the preliminary process before it is sold to the drivers.

If you’re in this industry, you already have the experience and knowledge, the machines are probably already in the assembly shop. However, it is important to keep the machines up to date.

Education is also important. In every industry there is always more to learn, new technologies to make a given process more efficient. The TGIS-SL tire geometry inspection is the best geometry measuring machine. Education also involves understanding the terminology. For example, tire uniformity actually refers to non-uniformity, which is a quantitative measure of the variation in strength and runout within a tire.

I suggest doing some research every now and then to stay ahead of the competition. Who is the leading competitor? Research what they do. Why are you the leader? I would say it depends on the machines used and the customers. In every industry there is always a leader; at least keep up and stabilize yourself to be on top as well.

Car DVD players – different approaches to in-car entertainment

When you buy a car DVD player, the first thing you need to decide is where to put it. Would you like it hanging from the ceiling? Would you like it to be built into the backrest of the driver’s and passenger’s seats? Would you like it to just hang from the back of the seats (the cheaper option)? These are important questions to answer that will determine your price and installation effort required.

There are three main types of in-car DVD player installation: ceiling, headrest and over-the-seat.

The advantages of ceiling mounting:

  • It folds up nicely and stays out of the way when not in use.
  • It folds up and is very sturdy and will not be knocked off or knocked over

The disadvantages of ceiling mounting:

  • Some require drilling holes in the roof of the car
  • It cannot be moved to another location once installed (without much effort).

The advantages of headrest assembly:

  • install east. Simply remove the current headrest and insert a new headrest.
  • Allows for two screens, which can be great for kids and games like Xbox 360 or PS3.

The disadvantages of headrest mounting:

  • Replacing your current headrest may not be as convenient as your previous headrest.
  • The new headrest may not match your vehicle’s interior color scheme.

In conclusion, the advantages of over-the-seat installation:

  • Easy and quick to install. No tools required.
  • Easy and quick to move or remove. Again, no tools are required.

The disadvantages of installing over the seat:

  • The DVD player can be knocked over or even dropped.
  • Likewise, it’s much easier to scratch the screen since it’s closer to the passenger.

Whichever option you choose, you will love having great in-car entertainment with your car DVD player.

The KWP2000 protocol in automotive diagnostic applications

The KWP2000 protocol has become a de facto standard in automotive diagnostic applications. It is standardized as ISO 14230-3. KWP2000 describes the implementation of various diagnostic services that you can access through the protocol. You can operate KWP2000 on multiple transport layers such as K-Line (serial) or CAN.

transport protocol

Since KWP2000 uses messages with variable byte length, a transport protocol on layers with only a well-defined (short) message length like CAN is required. The transport protocol breaks a long KWP2000 message into parts that can be transmitted over the network and reassembles those parts to recreate the original message.

KWP2000 runs on CAN on different transport protocols like ISO TP (ISO 15765-2), TP 1.6, TP 2.0 (Volkswagen) and SAE J1939-21. For KWP2000, the Automotive Diagnostic Command Set only supports the transport protocols ISO TP (standardized in ISO 15765-2) and manufacturer-specific VW TP 2.0.

diagnostic services

The diagnostic services available in KWP2000 are grouped into functional units and identified by a one-byte code (ServiceId). The standard does not define all codes; for some codes, the standard refers to other SAE or ISO standards, others are reserved for manufacturer-specific extensions. The Automotive Diagnostic Command Set supports the following services:

• Diagnosis management

• Data transfer

• Saved data transmission (diagnostic error codes)

• Entry/Exit Control

• Remote activation of the routine

Upload/download and extended services are not part of the Automotive Diagnostic Command Set.

Diagnostic Service Format

Diagnostic services have a common message format. Each service defines a request message, a positive response message, and a negative response message. The request message has the ServiceId as the first byte plus additional service-defined parameters. The Positive Response Message has an echo of the ServiceId with bit 6 set as the first byte, plus the service-defined response parameters.

The Negative Response Message is usually a three-byte message: it has the Negative Response ServiceId as the first byte, an echo of the original ServiceId as the second byte, and a ResponseCode as the third byte. The only exception to this format is a negative response to an EscapeCode service; here the third byte is an echo of the user-defined service code and the fourth byte is the ResponseCode. The KWP2000 standard partially defines the ResponseCodes, but there is still room for manufacturer-specific extensions. KWP2000 defines an error handling procedure for some of the ResponseCodes. Because both positive and negative responses have an echo of the requested service, you can always match the responses to the appropriate request.


KWP2000 expects a diagnostic session to be started with StartDiagnosticSession and ended with StopDiagnosticSession. However, StartDiagnosticSession has a DiagnosticMode parameter that determines the diagnostic session type. Depending on this type, the ECU may or may not support other diagnostic services or operate in a restricted mode where not all ECU functions are available. The DiagnosticMode parameter values ​​are manufacturer specific and not defined in the standard. For a diagnostic session to remain active, it must run the TesterPresent service periodically when no other service is running. If the TesterPresent service is absent for a period of time, the diagnostic session will be terminated and the ECU will return to normal operating mode.


A GetSeed/Unlock mechanism can protect some diagnostic services. However, the applicable services are left to the manufacturer and are not defined by the standard. You can run the GetSeed/Unlock mechanism through the SecurityAccess service. This defines several security levels, which the manufacturer assigns to specific services.

read/write memory

Use the Read/WriteMemoryByAddress services to upload/download data to specific memory addresses on an ECU. The address is a three byte size in KWP2000 and a five byte size (four byte address and one byte extension) in the calibration records. The upload/download engine services are highly vendor specific and not well defined in the standard, so they are not a good way to provide a generic upload/download mechanism.


Use the ReadDataByLocal/CommonIdentifier services to access ECU data similar to a DAQ list. A Local/CommonIdentifier describes a list of ECU variables that are then transmitted from the ECU to the tester. The transmission can be either a single value or periodic, with a slow, medium or fast transmission rate. The transmission rates are manufacturer-specific; You can use the SetDataRates service to set them, but this setting is vendor specific. The Automotive Diagnostic Command Set supports single point measurements.

Diagnostic Trouble Codes

An important diagnostic function is reading diagnostic trouble codes (DTCs). KWP2000 defines multiple services that access DTCs based on their group or status.

Entry/Exit Control

KWP2000 defines services to modify internal or external ECU signals. An example is the redirection of ECU sensor inputs to stimulated signals. The control parameters of these commands are manufacturer-specific and not defined in the standard.

Remote activation of a routine

These services are similar to CCP’s ActionService and DiagService capabilities. You can call an ECU internal routine identified by a Local/CommonIdentifier or a memory address. Unlike the CCP case, execution of this routine can be asynchronous; That is, there are separate Start, Stop, and RequestResult services. The control parameters of these commands are manufacturer-specific and not defined in the standard.

External references

For more information on the KWP2000 standard, see the ISO 14230-3 standard.

Get some automotive diagnostic tools

Modern car owners cannot keep their cars in good condition without equipping them with some automotive diagnostic tools of their own. Even a simple car diagnostic tool is of great help in checking engine trouble codes.

Thanks to the rapid development of science and technology, these tools can be easily updated with the help of certain software. Then there is no need to buy them year after year which is a wonderful way to save our money and cut down the times we go to the mechanics for help.

In order to save your budget, you can buy some auto fitness products for auto diagnosis and scan purpose because they are usually cheap in price and convenient to use. A memo scanner is designed to read and erase trouble codes in vehicles, especially for DIY enthusiasts. Then you need some programming tools or commander to program or reprogram.

These tools have a user-friendly interface and are easy to use. The first thing to consider before purchasing any diagnostic device is your personal need and the extent to which you can handle the latest technologies on a personal or professional level.

Here I can name some auto fitness products, such as: B. U280 VW/AUDI Note Scanner, VAG PROG CZ Version, BMW OPPS, BMW OPS, BMW GT1, VAG Pin Reader, OBD2 ELM327 USB CAN-BUS Scanner etc. You will find them useful, I promise .

By investing some money in these tools first, you can self-scan your car problems and solve them yourself. That means you get some basic analysis tools for a relatively cheap price, but they can work with most vehicle types and give access to all types of trouble codes and then diagnose problems related to the vehicle’s internal programming. This can save you money that you can spend diagnosing mechanical problems. It really is a bargain.

Car cleaning tips – Car Talk

Keeping your car clean and tidy doesn’t have to be difficult. Keep these tips in mind and you’ll be proud to drive around town in your sparkling clean car.

1. Wash at home.

Car washing is the only way for your car to be beautiful and shiny, so why not try washing it yourself at home? With the automated car wash, you can have the car cleaned while you get your nails done, but it will cost you.

Park the car in a shaded area and then wash it off with a hose. Start with the roof, work your way down the sides, and then to the tires. Then scrub the car with a sponge dipped in water and mild liquid soap. Rinse and repeat if necessary.

2. Use car wash facilities.

You can drive to an automatic car wash to clean your car if you don’t feel like doing it at home. It’s going to cost you, that’s for sure, so compare the pros and cons before you go.

The good thing about automated or drive-through car wash services is that they make the experience of owning a car hassle-free. No more worrying about bird droppings or liquid stains or anything – just drive to the nearest car wash, pay for the cleaning and drive through.

3. Neat inside out.

The purpose of car cleaning is to prevent wear and tear on the car, but there is more to it than that. It’s also about being comfortable in the car and not about itching and dirt because someone didn’t clean the interior.

The first rule of thumb is to check the seats. Food scraps and other small particles tend to get stuck between the pillows, so check these areas often. Then sweep the floor from small stones and dirt that got into the car. Just remember to clean the seats first before doing the floor and not the other way around – otherwise you’ll have to do the floor all over again.

4. Use car seat covers.

One of the hardest things about owning a car is taking the seats out to have them washed. It’s a tedious job and it gets worse every time. In addition, it is impossible not to get the seats dirty, especially with children. You really need to start thinking about investing in seat covers.

For seat covers, simply remove the covers when you need to wash and tidy them up. The seats remain. These covers protect the seats from stains and dust and all sorts of fabric damage. It doesn’t get any better than that. Seat covers will change the way you see your car.

5. Keep a trash can nearby.

Having a trash can in the car will save you a lot of time and effort by significantly reducing the need to clean up once in a while. Some people have a habit of just tossing their trash—candy wrappers, plastic bags, crumpled paper—wherever they can’t find a trash can nearby. Don’t let “somewhere” be your car. Keep a small trash can behind either the driver’s seat or the passenger seat and keep your car from smelling like pit lane.

With any of these five tips, keeping your car clean shouldn’t be a problem. Remember that it’s much easier for you to clean it up little by little and often than to leave it for weeks (or months!) only to have to spend an entire weekend dealing with one big mess.

How to make car wax

How to make wax

Today, beeswax is sometimes used in car waxes, but typically it’s most commonly used in furniture waxes and polishes. You can make your own wax very easily, my ancestors made it on the plantation on Cape Cod, it’s a relatively easy process and fun too.

First you need some pots to cook with and a pot of hot water. Liquid beeswax furniture polish is easy, use 1/4 cup ivory soap, 1/4 pound beeswax, 1 cup turpentine and 1/2 cup water. Dissolve the soap in hot water, add the grated wax into the turpentine and slowly melt together, then pour the soap mixture into the mixture and stir with a wooden spoon. Once well stirred, pour it into a glass and you have it, very good easy. Beeswax cream furniture polish, which can also be used on cars low in turpentine, is made by taking and mixing 1/4 pound beeswax, 2 cups turpentine, 1/4 cup liquid ivory soap, 1 cup warm to boiling water, and 1/4 cup of pine oil . The only difference is that you have to make sure all the beeswax is first dissolved and cooled, then mix it into the warm soapy water until it solidifies, then heat and dissolve together again. If you reduce the turpentine content, you can also use it for your car. It goes smooth and it works well.

Although I prefer carnauba wax for cars for its ease of use, realistically the carnauba wax only lasts for three months while the melted beeswax might last a bit longer. For solid beeswax furniture polish, favored by antique dealers we’ve met on the back roads of NH, VT, and Maine, just use equal amounts of linseed oil, beeswax, and turpentine. The finished product is golden brown and transparent and looks rich. Now you have lemon oil smell in furniture polish that can just be added to the boiling water during the process.

There are many good waxes for cars that you wouldn’t put on surfboards, furniture, or statues. Wax is also found in the human ear. There are two different types and your genetics will determine which one you have. Most plants also have a thin protective layer of wax. Most fruit and citrus trees and vegetable plants have wax on the fruits, leaves and vegetables that they produce and that we eat. Many animals and even some fish also produce waxes biologically. Other wax components are found in minerals and petroleum products and distillates.

There are polymers or synthetic waxes that are processed by man into different types of waxes. We really source waxes from a variety of sources. The carnauba wax we are discussing is a favorite wax of many detailers. Carnauba wax is found on the leaves of the carnauba palm. In my opinion, the best carnauba wax comes from the palm trees of Brazil. You can tell a good carnauba wax by the water beads you see when you detail your car. Candelilla wax comes from a plant that grows in parts of Mexico, Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Guatemala, and sometimes the southwestern United States. It’s a brown wax and not only used for cars, but also for records, flooring and candles. Although it is the main ingredient in candle wax, it is usually mixed with other waxes into the candles we use in our homes.

The importance of automotive diagnostic equipment

The automotive diagnostic devices are important tools for analyzing and diagnosing vehicles. These devices help to check the inevitable irregularities and malfunctions that persist in vehicles during use. Thus, the repair is based on the detection of errors made by these devices.

As the automotive industry is one of the most developing and dynamic industries, it has always invited continuous technological improvements in the field of vehicle diagnostic equipment. The computer-aided automotive diagnostic tools and laser-based vehicle engine analyzers are just a few of the frightening examples.

In addition to repair purposes, these automotive diagnostic devices are also used extensively in the automotive industry. These highly optimized equipments ensure a complete automobile when all parts are installed on the assembly lines.

For example ; A dynamometer is used to detect the problems in a malfunctioning engine. It is basically used to find out the errors related to the torque and speed of the motor. The other diagnostic tool is a vehicle emissions tester. It determines the excess emissions caused by leaks in automobiles.

As we can see, almost all car repair shops have analyzers for car or vehicle engines. A diagnostic tool like this has the ability to identify and track the problems and faults in more than one engine at a time.

An automotive engine analyzer is one of the most efficient automotive diagnostic tools. Its detection and diagnostic ability is well proven and recommended by many. It can find out the problem areas at electric speed, so we can save enough time.

Since these testing and measuring devices are technically extremely upgraded, they are inevitably available at prices that are not quite affordable. These diagnostic devices are usually very expensive. Therefore, it needs enough care when investing in such devices. One can fall victim to sub-standard gear.

Automotive equipment and tools for the automotive industry

The automotive equipment industry is engaged in the manufacture of all types of tools and machines needed for the manufacture, maintenance and repair of vehicles including automobiles and auto parts. Therefore, the industry produces different types of devices, ranging from simple hand tools to more complex machines.

Various types of automotive equipment

Auto repair shops and garages will not function without automotive equipment. Shop furniture, hydraulic lifts, exhaust hoses, air compressors, greasers, electric and light reels, jacks, vehicle maintenance equipment, fluid storage tanks, and air lines are some of the many different types of vehicle equipment used by automobile manufacturers and auto repair shops.

Common types of automotive equipment

* Hand Tools: Auto repair shops use different types of hand tools for their repair and maintenance projects. Some of the most common items are ratchet and wrench sets, crowbars (aka crowbars), socket sets, screwdrivers, star and coupler head screwdrivers, hammers, pliers and wire cutters, electric drills, hacksaws and torque wrenches.

* Pneumatic Tools: Most auto repair shops are now using pneumatic tools as an alternative to electric powered motors, as the latter are more prone to fire hazards. Such tools are compressed air powered and are powerful versions of the more traditional hand tools. Common examples of automotive pneumatic equipment are air compressors, which can be used to power a variety of tools including hammers, drills, ratchets, and spray tools.

* The availability of pneumatic equipment makes it easier for mechanics and technicians to carry out repair and maintenance work because they are powerful and easy to use. For example, pneumatic snips can cut through sheet metal faster and leave a smoother edge compared to traditional tin snips. Similarly, air hammers fitted with chisel or punch bits have multiple uses. They can be used to straighten dents. The chisel function can be used to loosen rusted parts and the punch bits can be used to remove old rivets and screws that are too difficult to remove by hand.

* Lifting Platforms: Various types of lifting devices are used to lift and secure cars, allowing mechanics and repair personnel to easily work under the vehicle. These lifting tools include both low-tech tools like simple jacks, car ramps and jacks, as well as hydraulic lifts and jacks for greater efficiency and performance.

* Vehicle Exhaust Removal Systems: Vehicle exhaust removal systems are used to capture and remove noxious exhaust gases to ensure optimal air quality in automotive maintenance and repair shops. These are mandatory items of equipment under OSHA standards to limit exposure to harmful vehicle emissions. Common vehicle exhaust removal systems include hose debris and reels.

* Lubrication Systems: Automotive lubrication systems include various types of oil meters, ATF meters, transmission oil meters, discharge valves, and grease discharge valves.

The automotive equipment business is a very large and competitive business. Auto repair shops need to buy equipment from reputable dealers to get the best deals and levels of performance.

Significance of the latest automotive technology

In the last few decades, technology has found its way into all areas of life. The automotive industry is no exception. Vehicles have changed a lot in the last ten years. Vehicle manufacturers are always looking for new innovations to convince the customer segment. But are these new additions beneficial to a rider? The main purpose of this article is to discuss the pros and cons of the latest automotive technology:

Security – In terms of security, improved technology has only made things more complicated. In the good old days, vehicles weren’t known for their speed. As technology has improved, the speed of vehicles has increased. But it has also resulted in a large number of fatalities in accidents, despite the fact that technologies such as shock absorbers and racing suspension have been added to vehicles to make driving safer and easier. Seat belts, which became popular in the 1980’s, certainly reduced the number of accidents. Improving the strength of cars is another strategy that has been adopted by various car manufacturers.

Power steering- In terms of power steering, cars have certainly improved. Now you don’t need to use electricity when turning cars. Reversing into a parking space is now also a simple process. In this respect, one can say that new technologies have positive effects.

Improved Side Mirrors – In the early days of vehicle production, near side mirrors were not built into vehicles. But in all modern vehicles you will find near side mirrors. These mirrors are very helpful when changing lanes. This prevents traffic accidents and also makes driving easier.

Vehicles Without Transmissions – Some people find it difficult to drive vehicles that require gears to be changed regularly. To help such people, new vehicles have been invented that drive automatically, requiring only an adjustment in speed. This innovation has helped people with impaired reflexes or the elderly in the twilight of their lives. These people, too, now have the opportunity to drive vehicles, whereas previously they had to rely on public transport.

GPS Maps – This was an extremely useful innovation. These are road maps related to your destination that can be viewed on built-in screens. This makes driving a lot safer, as searching for an address in the address book while driving could prove dangerous.

Music systems and air conditioning systems – The new vehicles have music systems and air conditioning systems that make driving a pleasant experience. This option was not available on earlier vehicles.